X-ray are a form of radiation, just like right. They behave in much the same way as light rays, but at much shorter wavelengths. When directed at a target of low density, X-rays can pass through the substance uninterrupted. Higher density targets will reflect or absorb the X-rays, because there is less space between the atoms the atoms for the short waves to pass through. Thus, an X-rays image shows dark where the rays traveled completely through the target. It shows light areas where the rays were blocked by dense material .It’s this property that allows X-rays to take a “picture” of a person’s skeleton.
The first X-rays device was discovered accidentally in 1895 by the German scientist Wilhelm Roentgen. He found that a cathode-ray the rube emitted invisible rays that could penetrate paper and wood. The rays caused a screen of fluorescent material several yards away to glow. Roentgen used his device to examine the bone structure of the human hand.
The most important application of the X-rays has been is use in medicine . This importance was recognized almost immediately after Roentgen’s findings were published in 1895. Within weeks of its first demonstration. an X-rays machine was used in America to diagnose bone fractures. X-rays revolutionised how doctors detected diseases and injuries. For the first time we could ess bones and other structuers inside the living body--instead of relying on symptoms.samples or surgery.
An X-rays machine is essentially a camera. Instead of visible light, however, it uses X-rays to expose the film. X-rays are like light in that they are electromagnetic waves, but they are more energetic so they can penetrate many materials to varying degrees. When the X-ryas hit the film, they expose it just as light would. Since bones. Fat, muscles, rumors and other masses absorb X-rays ta different levels, the image on the film lets you see different structuers inside the body because of the different on the film. These rays can spot lungs and heart problems, tumors and broken bones.
The three major elements that make up an X-rays machine are the vacuum tube, the high-voltage power source and the operating console. The x-rays rube is essential to the machine as it is the piece that ultimately produces X-rays. The high-voltage power supply uses a transformer to accurately alternate between the voltage of currents being sent to the emitter or to the anode. The operating console is the control unit, which works to manage the currents, voltage and timer.
Older X-rays machines exposed doctors and patients to a large amount of X-rays radiation. As time has progressed and advances have been made, new safety measures have been implemented. Current X-rays machines only produce radiation for small of seconds. Additionally, the beam is tightly focused upon an area of the patient’s body. The machine is shielded, and proper precautions such as lead shielding have been built into hospitals to stop radiation form moving outward.
Modern medical X-ray machines have been grouped into two categories: those that generate “hard” X-rays and those that generate “soft” X-rays. Soft X-rays are the kind used to photograph bones and internal organs. They operate at a relatively low frequency and , unless they are repeated too often, cause little damage to tissues. Hard X-rays are very high frequency rays. They are designed to destroy the molecules within specific cells, thus destroying tissue. Hard X-rays are used in radiotherapy, a treatment for cancer.
One of the more familiar X-rays machines is the security scanner used to examine baggage at airports. These machines use a very low-power scanner. They illuminate the interior of purse and suitcases without causing damage to the contents.