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Congenital heart disease and its symptoms

Clicks:Updated:2018-06-04 13:06:51

Congenital heart disease and its symptoms
 
Overview
Congenital heart disease is the most common type of congenital malformations, accounting for about 28% of all congenital malformations. It refers to abnormal anatomical structures caused by abnormalities in the development of heart and large blood vessels during embryonic development, or birth abnormalities. The channel that should be automatically closed afterwards cannot be closed (in the fetus is normal). The incidence of congenital heart disease can not be overlooked, accounting for 0.4% to 1% of living infants, which means that China's annual increase of 1 to 200,000 congenital heart disease patients. 
 
The spectrum of congenital heart diseases is particularly broad, including hundreds of specific types, some patients can simultaneously merge multiple deformities, symptoms vary widely, the lightest person can be asymptomatic for life, and severe cases such as hypoxia, shock or even premature death occur when severe cases occur. . According to hemodynamics combined with pathophysiological changes, congenital heart disease can be divided into cyanotic or non-fistula type, and can also be divided into three categories according to whether there is no shunt: no shunt type (such as pulmonary artery stenosis, aortic coarctation), left to Right shunt (such as atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus) and right-to-left shunt (such as Fallot tetralogy, large vessel dislocation) class.
Congenital heart disease
 
A small number of congenital heart diseases have a chance of self-healing before the age of 5 years. In addition, a small number of patients have mild malformations and no significant effect on circulatory function. No treatment is required, but most patients need surgery to correct malformations. With the rapid development of medical technology, the effect of surgery has been greatly improved. At present, most patients, such as timely surgical treatment, can return to normal as normal people, and their growth and development are not affected, and they can meet the ordinary needs of work, study and life.
 
Etiology
Generally believed that early pregnancy (5 to 8 weeks) is the most important period of fetal heart development, congenital heart disease has many causes, genetic factors account for only about 8%, while the vast majority of 92% are caused by environmental factors, such as Women taking drugs, infections, environmental pollution, and radiant radiation during pregnancy can cause abnormal fetal heart development. In particular, infection of rubella virus in the first 3 months of pregnancy will increase the risk of children with congenital heart disease.
 
Clinical manifestations
There are many types of congenital heart disease, and its clinical manifestations mainly depend on the size and complexity of the deformity. Complex and severe deformities can appear severe symptoms shortly after birth and can even be life-threatening. It should be noted that some simple malformations such as ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, etc., may not have obvious symptoms in the early stages, but the disease will still be potentially worsening, requiring timely diagnosis and treatment, so as not to lose the chance of surgery. The main symptoms are:
1. Frequent colds, repeated respiratory tract infections, susceptible to pneumonia.
2. Poor growth, weight loss, and sweating.
3. Difficulties in sucking, feeding, or breastfeeding during feeding, or infants who refuse to eat or cough, and often have shortness of breath.
4. Children complain of fatigue and poor physical strength.
5. Lips, cyanosis or cyanosis after crying or activity, clubbed fingers (a nail bed like a hammer uplift).
6. Like phlegm, syncope, hemoptysis.
7. The auscultation found a murmur in the heart.
 
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